YOUNG extent, measured by the global indicator framework that

YOUNG INDONESIANS AS AGENTS OF PEACE IN THE FACE OF TERRORISM
PROPAGANDA

 

 

Oleh

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Haifa Audrey Azzahra

190110170071

 

 

 

Fakultas Psikologi

Universitas Padjadjaran

Sumedang

2017

 

 

 

 

 

Tabel of Contents

CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION

A.   
Background
Study…………………………………………………………….1

B.    
Problem
Formulation……………………………………………………..…..2

C.    
Literature
Review………………………………………………………..……2

CHAPTER II : DISCUSSION

A.   
Current
Situation in Indonesia………………………………………………..4

B.    
Peace
through the Framework of Pancasila and  Undang
– Undang Dasar 1945…………………………………………………………………………….4

C.    
Putting
Methods of Attaining Peace in Practice………………………………..6

CHAPTER III : CLOSING

A.   
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….9

B.    
Suggestions……………………………………………………………………9

References…………………………………………………………………………………10

 

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION

 

A.   
Background Study

Among
the list of Sustainable Development Goals, to promote peaceful and inclusive
societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and
build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels, falls at
the sixteenth place – a seemingly impossible task considering the diverse
cultures and religious beliefs that thrive and take form as human identities.
The United Nations have been keeping records of 
progress to a certain extent, measured by the global indicator framework
that was developed by the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on SDG Indicators and
agreed to, as a practical starting point at the 47th  session of the UN Statistical Commission held
in March 2016. The progress was also announced in a report by the
Secretary-General of The United Nations, entitled ‘Progress towards the
Sustainable Development Goals’.

Despite
the fact that homicides have declined slowly and more citizens around the world
have better access to justice (as was reported by the Secretary-General),
regions across the world still strive for peace and justice. To name some of
the extremes: Palestine and Syria. Their journey to peace and justice is a long
way ahead. Other countries given leniency from war (this includes Indonesia)
must take heed of their sufferings to achieve the 16th Global Goals. Further
discussion on peace and justice must take place. 

In
this context, peace is not a state of mind. It is freedom from war and violence
or any other misconduct that creates distress among the involved parties.
Meanwhile, justice itself can be attained when peace is understood. These two
universal burdens that intertwine with one another are in accordance to
Indonesia’s ideology, Pancasila and constitution, Undang – Undang Dasar 1945.

Thus,
scrutinizing on phenomenon and actions that could rupture or secure the
pre-existing peace and justice in Indonesia becomes important. To put that into
immediate effect, this paper examines a statement uttered by an Indonesian
ex-terrorist, Iqbal Huseini, on November 9th 2017. Iqbal Husaini alias Rambo
was sentenced into four years of prison on the charges of terrorism amidst the
Ambon Conflict. But it is now Husaini’s belief that all citizens of Indonesia,
especially the young people, must combat terrorism for it violates the
fundamental values upheld by Pancasila and UUD 1945. In facing radical
terrorism propaganda, Husaini alias Rambo advised the young Indonesians to
fulfill their role as agents of peace, active mainly on the social media. It
will then be a solution for maintaining freedom and integration of NKRI (Negara
Kesatuan Republik Indonesia). 

B.    
Problem Formulation

Engraved
throughout the history of Indonesia is the struggle for better society,
economics, and governments advocated by the young citizens of Indonesia.
Gerakan Mahasiswa in years 1977-1978, 1990, and 1998 stand as evidence. Look
into the past then Iqbal Husaini’s initiative can be considered as a realistic
ideal.

But
reflecting on regulations set by Indonesian supreme commands of law and the
current young people of Indonesia’s stance on prosocial relations (altruistic
values and ability to create peace) can Iqbal Husaini’s initiative become the
catalyst to effectuate the sixteenth Sustainable Development Goal in Indonesia?

C.    
Literature
Review

A
paramount aspect that would either decree Iqbal Husaini’s initiative into
success or sentence it into failure is the effectiveness of pitching young
Indonesians against terrorism propaganda. An indicator that must be studied to
determine that is prosocial relations – whether young Indonesians on average
have an on-depth understanding of it and conduct it on day-to-day basis.

Prosocial
relation is a positive outlook offered by social psychology – a study on behaviors
that intend to assist or benefit to someone. This particular relation can be
explored through altruism and peace-making (Myers, 2010).

A
vital part necessary for young Indonesians to have so they can carry out a
mission of peace in accordance to Pancasila is altruism. Myers (2010) defined
it as the unselfish regard for the welfare of others.

It
is an uncomplicated concept, but to do it justice requires more effort. Young
Indonesians must first disregard the bystander effect. This is the inclination
to be idyllic in aiding someone when another individual is present (Myers,
2010).

Indonesian
Ministry of Home Affairs, Tjahjo Kumolo stated as of June 30th 2016,
the number of Indonesian population has reached 257.912.349 and since then it
has grown by 4 million (www.jogja.tribunnews.com ,
2017). This number is relevant as the population correlates to human resources
– a figure abundant enough to be conquered by the bystander effect. In the
midst of human potentials, young Indonesians must realize that each and one of
them can play an important role in pushing forward sustainable development and
that their productivity matters.

The
future of Indonesians depend upon the young people and for that young
Indonesians must be aware of the social-responsibility norm – an expectation
that people will give help to the need (Myers, 2010). Rise to that challenge
and it would be unquestionable that the altruistic values are embedded in young
Indonesians.

With an altruistic mindset, peace can be pursued. Avoidance of
social traps is imperative – social traps being the orientation of personal
interest that harms collective interest. So does the mirror-image / enemy
perceptions. This is sparked by conflict and as a result individuals can think
of others in a distorted manner, often more malevolent than in reality (Myers,
2010).

The diversity of race, tribe, religion, and beliefs in Indonesia
can often manifest its frustration in conflict involving one another. Falling
into social traps and immersion in mirror-image / enemy perception prolongs
conflict, thus putting Indonesia farther away from achieving peace.

But
actually, there are methods proven by scientific research that are beneficial
in pursuing peace, such as contact between noncompetitive parties of equal
status, cooperation to achieve superordinate goals – shared goals that can set
aside differences, communication, and conciliation to decrease tension (Myers,
2010).

 

CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

 

A.   
Current Situation in Indonesia

In
2016, an article by Media Indonesia revealed that after Preventive Justice in
Anticipation of Terrorism Threats Development, a national seminar held in Hotel
Borobudur, Jakarta, Head of Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Terrorisme Komjen
Suhardi Alius stated that radical groups such as ISIS use social media to
determine location of attack, training, fundraising, and coordination.

In
June 27th 2017, BBC Indonesia reported that North Sumatran Local
Police found 155 books consisting of ISIS propaganda, targeted to children, in
the home of one of the local North Sumatran police headquarter attackers.

Such
situations put Indonesia in a stance of defense. As a consequence, it is
imperative to be aware of Undang –Undang No.15 Tahun 2003 – a measure taken to assert
the punishment for terrorists.

The
problem is real. But before becoming agents of peace, young Indonesians must
leave behind behaviors such as bullying and discrimination. Another damning
factor is apathy.

Bullying,
discrimination, and apathy all lead to conflicts. One major counteract is
perspective taking – viewing conditions and issues through the perspective of
others. The other, is the methods of attaining peace as known through social
psychology.

B.    
Peace
through the Framework of Pancasila and Undang – Undang Dasar 1945.

Although
the ways to attain peace is scientifically known, there is a distinctive
framework in which young Indonesians should view the methods of contact,
cooperation, communication, and conciliation. Boundaries must be set when
carrying out these methods as in its applications; UUD 1945 and Pancasila have a
supreme command that keeps Indonesians in line.

First,
it is important to emphasize that peace is also advocated by Pancasila and UUD
1945.

Below
is a further elaboration on the UUD 1945 preamble:

a.      
Freedom
is every nation’s right. No nation can be considered inferior because of their
race, culture, or religion.

b.     
Colonization
and slavery are considered inhumane and unfair, thus violating the basic human
right.

c.      
Keeping
universal orderliness ruled by freedom and prolonged peace.

d.     
From
the point of Indonesia’s freedom and onward, Undang – Undang Dasar 1945 control
and maintain the aforementioned freedom, subjecting the citizens of Indonesia
to a supreme law.

e.      
Integration
of Indonesia, politically, culturally, and geographically, is paramount.

Included in the third paragraph of the Preamble is Pancasila. The
first Sila implicates monotheism. It emphasizes on freedom of religion, giving
the citizens of Indonesia the options of Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddha,
etc. This attitude salutes the concept of human rights but can create problems
of its own, especially when differences between religions are exaggerated.
Specifically, Islam – which requires the believers to have to complete faith –
is often misinterpreted as an encouragement to wage wars against other
religions. This misfortune affects both Muslims and other people of faith gravely.

The second and fifth Silas discuss components that support the
attainment of peace, namely human rights and justice. Careful regards to both
human rights and justice prevents conflicts.

The fourth Sila states that democracy is foundational in governing.
Communication between the government and the people is facilitated by the
freedom of speech allowed in democracy. This is means of way to reveal pent up
frustrations of Indonesian citizens.

But perhaps, in this context, the most relevant Sila is the third
–’Persatuan Indonesia.’ Integration designed by peace is intended by the
Sustainable Development Goals.

In order to maintain peace the verse of UUD 1945 also includes
assertions that Indonesians must keep the integration of NKRI (Negara Kesatuan
Republik Indonesia). The 30th article of UUD 1945 states as follows’Tiap-tiap
warga negara berhak dan wajib ikut serta dalam usaha pertahanan dan keamanan
negara’. It is compulsary for all citizens of Indonesia to take part in
maintaining the integration and safety of the country. It is compulsary for
them to act in accordance of peace, to guarantee both integration and safety of
Indonesia.

It is important
to acknowledge the framework which Indonesia can create peace – UUD 1945 and
Pancasila – so the kind of peace Indonesia wants to foster is not vulnerable to
misinterpretation. In succession of knowing the views illustrated by UUD 1945
and Pancasila, one should trace back the four methods to attain peace proposed
by social psychology to UUD 1945 and Pancasila – see how Indonesia’s ideology
and constitution agree to it.

C.   
Putting Methods of Attaining Peace in Practice.

Young Indonesians must first master the four methods and implement
it within themselves. The reasoning behind this is how can young Indonesians be
agents of peace if they cannot forge peaceful relationships among their peers
and foster it so that peace grows beyond their peers and into the community?

Still in the
context of UUD 1945 and Pancasila, here is how young Indonesians can apply the
four methods of attaining peace into commonplace interaction with their peers
and community.

1.     
Contact.

Prejudice,
aggression, and conflict can be resolved through making contact between two
different parties of equal status (Myers, 2013). Pancasila supports this,
mainly through the third Sila that states ‘Persatuan Indonesia’.
Different races and religions are scattered on every regions in Indonesia. It
would benefit every single one of them, if each group of race or religion
welcomes more contact with other significant groups.

At
schools, colleges, workplaces, or the community, certain groups of races / religion
can reach out to other groups and invite them for positive interactions.

2.     
Communication.

In
Indonesia, communication is ruled by UUD 1945 Pasal 28E ayat (3), Pasal 28F and
Pasal 28J.

Democracy
in Indonesia allows for free communication among its citizens, as long as they
uphold human rights – restraining themselves from discriminatory or hate
speech.With that concept in mind, young Indonesians can start to become
rational mediators of two conflicting parties (i.e. groups of races or
religions) when tension between them is high.

As a
concrete act, young Indonesians can start using the social media much more
carefully, posting positive messages online, instead of staying silent while
cyber bullying occurs or even cyber bullying itself. This positive response
also extends to statements that are discriminatory and hateful – a common
characteristic of terrorism propaganda.

3.     
Cooperation.

Citizens
of Indonesia, especially the young, need to cooperate with one another to
achieve their superordinate goals (as was mentioned in the UUD 1945 Preamble);

a.     
untuk membentuk suatu pemerintah negara Indonesia yang melindungi
segenap bangsa Indonesia dan seluruh tumpah darah Indonesia

b.     
untuk memajukan kesejahteraan umum

c.      
mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa

d.     
dan ikut melaksanakan ketertiban dunia yang berdasarkan
kemerdekaan, perdamaian abadi dan keadilan sosial

According
to Myers (2013), superordinate goals can override diversities and shift their
focus into cooperating as opposed to competing. Indonesia’s superordinate goals
are the main directive that will force young Indonesians to cooperate.

Young
Indonesians will have to realize that every each young individual in Indonesia
doesn’t have to subject themselves to an unhealthy competition to see which
individual is better. That was never Indonesia’s principle.

Indonesia
– a country that upholds ‘kekeluargaan’ – is more suited to
collaborative cooperation.

As a
concrete act, young Indonesians can build more teamwork in academic,
organizational, or social settings by

a.      
following
instructions that came from authority figures (group leaders, teachers, etc),
and,

b.     
fully
acknowledging their roles by having a strong sense of self and play their roles
effectively as a form of participation in achieving the superordinate goals.

These
ideas may seem far-fetched to the initial goal discussed, but to have a
capacity for peace, cooperation and teamwork must be in order.

4.     
Conciliation.

Conciliation
may not be directly addressed in UUD 1945 and Pancasila, but it correlates
strongly with maintaining peace, and therefor integration. It is necessary to
settle disputes. Gestures like apologies and kind favors will not be
overlooked. Emotion regulation can play a huge role in allowing conciliations
to take place.

As
an example young Indonesians can abide by clauses of UUD 1945, specifically
Pasal 28 J ayat (1) and ayat (2) that states when exercising one’s rights,
there are boundaries that must not be crossed, namely the human rights of
others. Keeping the integrity of other people’s rights can be a form of
conciliation that hopefully is reciprocated. One exemplary gesture is being
respectful of other cultures and religions – enabling certain practices like
Salah of the Muslims, sermons of the Christians, of Hindu’s celebration of
Nyepi to occur unbothered.  

CHAPTER III

CLOSING

 

A.   
Conclusion

Considering that there is

a.      
a
current, dire condition in which conflicts that potentially could grow into the
disintegration of Indonesia arise,

b.     
a
scientifically proven method to achieve peace (methods promoting prosocial
relation), and

c.      
freedom
and encouragement to do so from the laws and regulation of UUD 1945 and
Pancasila.

It can be concluded that young Indonesians can carry this out
Husaini’s initiative, fulfilling their role as agents of peace, especially on
the social media front, tackling down terrorism propaganda.

 

B.    
Suggestion

For
further understanding on anti-terrorism initiative discussed in this paper, the
author suggests a thorough examination on future ideas put forth by the
governments and that one delve through UUD 1945 and Pancasila in case an
analysis is necessary.

 

References

Hingga Juli 2017 Jumlah Penduduk
Indonesia Bertambah Jadi 262 Juta Jiwa Lebih. (2017). Accessed on 14
November  2017, from http://jogja.tribunnews.com/2017/08/02/hingga-juli-2017-jumlah-penduduk-indonesia-bertambah-jadi-262-juta-jiwa-lebih

Kementrian Riset Teknologi dan
Pendidikan Tinggi. (2016). Pendidikan Kewarnegaraan untuk Perguruan Tinggi.
Jakarta : Direktorat Jenderal Pembelajaran dan Kemahasiswaan Kementrian Riset
Teknologi dan Pendidikan Tinggi.

Myers, D. (2010). Psychology Ninth
Edition in Modules. New York: Worth Publishers.

Putra-putri-Indonesia. (n.d.). Isi
Pembukaan UUD 1945 Republik Indonesia. Accessed on 16 November 2017, from https://www.putra-putri-indonesia.com/pembukaan-uud.html

Redaksi Tangga Pustaka. (2009). UUD
45 & Perubahannya. Jakarta : Tangga Pustaka.

UNDP. (n.d.). Sustainable
Development Goals. Accessed on 14 November 2017, from  http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals.html

United Nations. (n.d.). Goal 16.:. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform. Accessed on 14  November  2017, from https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg16