The tension between Israel and Palestine has been a major issue for the whole word since mid-20th century. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is mainly because of land and borders and how they are controlled. Although the starting of this current political problem is shown as the 20th century the claims of both states go back a couple of thousand years. As years have passed the issue became more and more complex leading to it being known as a problem which has no solution. Such a territorial dispute has been lasting between Israel and Palestine seems to be increasingly harder to satisfy the needs and alleged rights. As time passed more parties involved in the crisis.
Israel, being the world’s only Jewish state is located in the east of the Mediterranean Sea. Palestine was a common name of the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. When the Jews fled to Europe with the impact of anti-Semitism, they wanted to settle in the territory and gain an independent land. The conflict in a religious aspect explains that the Palestinians wanted to maintain an Arab-Muslim territory against the Jews. Over the years every kind of solution failed to be sufficient and effective. Before this conflict the Arabs and Jews had existed in peace for centuries. Today the lines reflect the wars between the two states and the UN had a lot of efforts on the region.
Definition of Key Terms
-A land which is selected to be used for a particular purpose, referred as specie land.
-A territorial dispute is present when two states fight over a territorial claim and declares sovereignty over a part of land which is refused by the other party. The territorial dispute can cause or result by influencing the states decision and economic factors. In the case of Israel and Palestine these factors resulted like that and still plays an essential role in the claim of both parties.
The British Mandate for Palestine
-In 1923, the League of Nations ratified the Mandate for Palestine and Transjordan Memorandum that would create two separate British protectorates against the declining Ottoman Empire: Transjordan and Palestine. The latter had the objective of creating a national home for Jews to practice their religion and live freely under the customs of Jewish tradition. Britain maintained control over the mandate for 28 years, until the creation of the Israel state that resulted out of the UN Partition Plan.
Zionism& Zionist Movement
-The Zionist movement arose in the late 19th century as a political movement with the Two maps displaying Palestine under the British Mandate and after the partition of the UN. objective of promoting Jewish nationalism. When in World War II anti-Semitic ideas became of considerable magnitude, Zionism emerged as the movement strongly opposing any form of Jewish discrimination. After the end of WWII, many still living Jews were displaced or homeless and sought refuge in a safe environment. The Zionist movement believed that this environment could be found in The British Mandate of Palestine, due to its sacred and holy land. Therefore more and more Jews demanded to create a homeland that could sustain the amount of displaced Jews, thus being to first ones to call for the creation of the Israel nation. In 1948, the United Nations officially recognised the nation of Israel after having been under the pressure of many displaced Jews by establishing the United Nations Partition Plan, after having abolished the British Mandate.
Gaza Strip Bank
-Both the Gaza Strip and the West Bank nowadays fall under the territorial claim of Palestine. After the UN Partition Plan, the Palestinian territory greatly diminished in size and is nowadays reduced back to the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. The problem with these two regions is the fact that they are located several hundred miles apart, making it a difficult task for the Palestinian authorities to maintain sovereignty over the regions. It is evident that the sovereignty of both regions currently lies under great threat, making the Palestinian territory more and more vulnerable to militant behaviour from both Israeli forces, and its own forces.
Oslo Accords& Oslo Peace Process
In 1993, the Oslo Accords were established between the government of Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) out of UN Security Council resolution 242 that was unanimously adopted in 1967, in striving for a Israeli-Palestinian peace process; otherwise known as the Oslo peace process.
The peace process aimed to achieve the following:
Palestinian ”interim” governance; implying to create an authority that would rule over the Palestinian territory until a permanent government would be settled to rule over Palestinian soil
• Partial withdrawal of Israeli forces from the Gaza Strip in order to make way for Palestinian elections
• The ultimate creation of a Israel Palestine peace treaty. The accords were a turning point in the dispute between Israel and Palestine by creating the Palestinian National Authority, who would be granted the right to govern over the regions of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. Before the accords, no governmental organisation was formally allowed to govern both regions and thus these regions were often claimed by smaller military organizations. It should be noted that the Oslo Accords did not have the intention of creating a Palestinian state, but rather wished for an authority to maintain the stability of these regions, before ultimately resulting in civil unrest.
-The two Intifadas were a set of Palestinian uprising which lasted for years. They were uprising against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza.
Palestinian Right to Return
Israel offers a ‘right of return’ to Jews born outside Israel, with associated citizenship rights based on historic and ancestral affinity with the territory of Israel/Palestine. However, thousands of displaced Palestinian refugees from ArabIsraeli War similarly have ancestral ties and historical affinity to the lands which they previously inhabited, yet are conferred no analogous rights by the State of Israel. Many Palestinians, especially but not exclusively advocates of a one-state solution, believe a similar right of return and automatic citizenship should be applied to the non-Jewish Palestinian diaspora.