The applied in role of hydrological investigation for development

The term ‘morphometry’ is coined by Robert E. Blackith (Blackith,
1957). He applied this concept in biological studies with mathematical
applications (Reyment, 2010). Morphometry is also termed as the measurement of
shape, or geometry, of any natural form. It is applicable for plant, animal or
relief features (A. N. Strahler, 1969). The term morphometry is combined with
geography is known as ‘Geomorphometry’. It may be defined as the measurement
and mathematical analysis of the configuration of the earth surface and of the
shape and dimensions of its landforms (J. I. Clarke, 1970). Geomorphometry is
the combination of Geo-science, mathematics and computer science collectively
resulted into quantitative land surface analysis (Pike et al. 2009).

In
geomorphic studies morphometric Analysis of a watershed performs a quantitative
description, geological and geomorphic history of the drainage basin (Strahler A.
N., 1964). Morphometric analysis deals with different types of drainage
patterns and its spatial relationship with rivers which are varies from one
another due to inequalities of slopes, soils, rock resistance, structure and
geological history of the respective region (Paul and Inayathulla, 2012). The results of morphometric analysis are mainly applied in role of
hydrological investigation for development and management of watershed (Singh,
1980, Rekha et al.2011).

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The Morphometric analysis is mathematical calculation of the parameter involve
evaluation  of  streams 
through  the  measurement 
of  various stream properties likes basin perimeter, basin area, basin shapes, channel lengths,
absolute relief, relative relief, dissection index, average slope, stream
order, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, standard stream length,
stream frequency, drainage texture, relief ratio, form factor, circularity
ratio, elongation ratio, sinuosity index, length
of overland flow and so on (Horton, 1932, 1945; Miller 1953; Schumn,
1956; Strahler, 1957, 1964; Nautiyal, 1994; Chopra et al. 2005; Nooka Ratnam et
al. 2005; Solanke et al. 2005; Akram Javed et al., 2009; Singh, 1980 and Chavare 2011). It includes measurements of
linear, areal and relief aspects of the drainage basin. These descriptors are
principle indicators for basin processes and to compare basin characteristics
(Mesa, 2006; Kanth
and Hussan, 2012). There are good correlation proved between
morphometric and hydrological characteristics of watershed (Singh and Ghose,
1973; Singh and Sharma, 1977 and Singh et al. 1977).

In
morphometric analysis watershed is considered as a basic unit which means the
surface area drained by a part or the totality of one or several given water
courses and can be taken as a naturally occurring hydrological unit
characterized by a set of similar topographic, climatic and physical conditions
(Akram Javed et al. 2009). It also consist the same community and unique
socio-economic practices. It deals with both notions i.e. bio-physiography and
socio-economy and comprising all natural resources, people and their economic
activities (Gopal B. Thapa). Hence, watershed is an ideal unit for management
of Natural resources like land and water and its sustainable development (Kanth and Hussan, 2012).

The morphometric analysis is
implemented for watershed unit to understand its physical makeup and the results of
morphometric analysis are mainly applied in role of hydrological investigation
for development and management of watershed. It could be considered for
prioritization of sub-watersheds as well as it is important for Decision
Support System (DSS) related to watershed development issues. (P. Chias and T. Abad, 2009; Rekha et al.2011; Kiran
and Srivastava, 2012; Kanth and Hussan, 2012; Panhalkar et al. 2012; Usha
Chirala et al. 2012; Sangita Mishra S. and Nagarajan R. 2010; Akram Javed et
al. 2011; Grohmann, 2004; Akram Javed et al., 2009).

As a result, the present chapter
aims to assess the morphometric characteristics of Pravara watershed for its
planning and development.

Sub-watersheds
of Pravara Watershed:

            The Pravara watershed occupies 2621.10 km2
areas. Calculation of morphometric parameters for whole huge watershed gives
the general idea about the physical structure, characteristics and basin
morphometry. But general study about morphometry is insufficient for further
implementation of development and management policies. DSS requires detailed
scenario of morphometric structure. Due to these reason the whole Pravara
watershed has been further divided into 246 sub-watersheds, designated as P1 to
P246 for prioritization purpose. These 246 sub-watersheds are used to
understand the morphometric characteristics, local relief and physiographic structure
of the study area. ArcMap 10.1 software with SWAT analytical tool has been used
to delineate sub-watersheds. The attribute data of Pravara sub-watersheds is
given in Table no. —- in Appendix.   

Stream
ordering of the drainage basin is the initial step of morphometric analysis and
it is performed by using stream ordering method proposed by Strahler in 1964. These
246 sub-watersheds have different basin orders. Maximum number of sub-watersheds
characterized by third and fourth order basin, they are 116 and 90
respectively. There are 5 first order basins, 33 second order basin and 2 fifth
order basin. The distribution of sub-watersheds according to their order is
indicated in Table no.—– and Figure no. 3.1 respectively.

Order of the Basin

Total no. of the Basins

1st

5

2nd

33

3rd

116

4th

90

5th

2