Joanna GonzalezHistory APMrs. Chance 9 December 201710 Chapter Summaries Chapter 2: 1500- 1733 The Virginia Company of London received a charter from King James the first from England for a settlement in the new world which led the company to Jamestown in May 24, 1607 with Captain John Smith as the leader. Through 1609 to 1610, only 60 out of 400 settlers survived the starving winter. In 1610, Lord de la Warr came to Jamestown with supplies and military. He and his men raided and burned indian villages which led to the first and second Anglo-Powhatan war in which the indians were defeated. John Rolfe’s marriage to Pocahontas in 1644 ended the first Anglo-Powhatan war. The disease brought by the europeans to the New world was main killer of indians and their culture. In 1619, self-government was made in Virginia through the House of Burgesses. Virginia was later made a colony of England in 1624. Maryland was formed by lord Baltimore as a refuge for Catholics because of the Protestant English government. In 1649 the local representative group in Maryland passed the Act of Toleration which granted toleration to all Christians. The Barbados Slave Code was was created in 1661 to control the large numbers of slaves which denied slaves the most of the fundamental rights. The English founded Georgia to serve as a buffer state for the protection of the Carolinas from Spanish Florida and the French in Louisiana. 2.) Chapter 4: 1607-1692In the early years of virginia and Maryland, its citizens didn’t survive past the age of 20 due to the spreading of diseases. The Chesapeake colonies main export is tobacco so they used indentured servants to work their plantation. The plantation owner paid for the indentured servants transatlantic passage from England to America. To encourage the importation of indentured servants, Maryland and Virginia adopted the headright system which gives 50 acres of land to whoever paid for the passage of the indentured servant. In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon and his followers led a rebellion Virginia’s Governor William Berkeley due to his friendly policies towards the indians. Bacon’s rebellion was important because it led to the importation, slave trade and the increase of slaves due to the Southerners fear of another rebellion. Virginia made slave codes in 1662, which made determined the slaves rights, status and made blacks and their children property of their masters for life. The social scale of southern colonies were wealthy planter, small farmers, landless whites/indentured servants, and slaves. In 1662 a new church membership was created called the Half-Way Covenant which allowed the members to baptize their children but not to full communion which increased church members and money for the church. In 1692 the Salem Witch trials occured due to a group of girls who claimed they were bewitched which led to the witch hunt, hanging and imprisonment of many innocent colonist. In 1693, the salem witch trials were stopped by the governor of Massachusetts. New England’s economy was based on shipbuilding and fishing. Leisler’s Rebellion occurred in New York City from 1689-1691 because of the resentment the colonist had towards King James II policies.Chapter 6: 1608-1763In 1598 the Edict of Nantes was issued which granted limited religious freedom to french protestants and stopped the fighting between protestants and catholics. New France valuable resource was beaver. Jesuits were French Catholic missionaries who tried to convert indians to Christianity. Battles between Britain and Spain over North America were called King William’s War 1869-1697 and Queen Anne’s War 1702-1713. The treaty of Utrecht ended the wars in 1713 by giving Britain Acadia, Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay to Britain. The battle known as the war of Jenkins ear in 1739 between Spain and Britain, later became a war known as King George’s War in America. The war ended with the treaty of 1748 which gave Louisbourg back to France. In 1754, George Washington went to Ohio River Valley to secure land, virginians had purchased but they killed the French leader which caused the troops to come and they surrendered. The French and Indian War began in 1754 between Britain and Prussia vs. France, Spain, Austria and Russia. In 1754, The Albany Congress met to discuss the union of all the colonies. William pitt was a military leader who attacked and captured Louisbourg in 1758. Britain beat France in the Battle of Quebec in 1759 . The Treaty of Paris in 1760 ended the French and Indian war which made Britain have the dominant power in North America. Intercolonial disunity began in America between religions, nationalities, governments, and boundary disputes. In 1763, Pontiac led several tribes with French aid to attack the British out of Ohio but the British defeated them. The British government issued the proclamation of 1763 which prohibited any settlement in any area beyond the Appalachians. Chapter 8: 1775- 1783George Washington lead the Continental army. In June 1775, the colonists captured Bunker Hill but the British regained it. The Second Continental Congress announced the Olive Branch Petition which is the colonists declaring American loyalty to the king if he stops future hostilities but the king rejected it. In 1776, Thomas paine released a pamphlet called Common Sense which argued that there was no need for British rule but for independence. At the Second Continental Congress, Richard Henry Lee propose declaring for independence and Thomas Jefferson was appointed to create the Declaration of Independence which was approved on July 4, 1776. Loyalists were colonists still loyal to Britain and opposed the declaration for independence whereas patriots wanted independence from Britain. On the Battle of Long Island, George Washington and his troops were surrounded so they had to escape. Britain’s failed plain in capturing the Hudson River Valley in 1777 made it possible for Americans to receive the much needed aid from France, this was the turning point in the war. The French made an alliance with the Americans to fight Britain in 1778. Armed Neutrality which was created by Catherine the Great of Russia, allied the remaining European countries against Britain. Benedict Arnold a military leader turned traitor and General Greene succeeded in clearing out British troops from Georgia and South Carolina. In 1784, the treaty of Fort Stanwix was signed between U.S. and Iroquois which gave most of the indian lands to the Americans. The battle of yorktown was the last battle of the Revolutionary War in which the British surrendered. The Treaty of Paris of 1783 between the U.S and Britain in which Britain recognizes the U.S independence.Chapter 10: 1789-1800Lincoln outlined his position on the slavery issue by stating again that he, as president, had no constitutional authority to abolish slavery.George Washington was elected President and he established the cabinet. James Madison wrote the Bill of Right which consists of freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, petition, right to bear arms, and speedy trial. The bill was passed on 1791 by Congress. The Judiciary Act of 1789 created the Federal Court System, the Supreme Court and the Office of Attorney General. Hamilton’s economic plan was to try and get out of debt due to the Revolutionary war which consisted of tax on whiskey, protective tariffs, the national bank and pay off the debt of individuals and states. The Whiskey rebellion in 1784, were colonists who opposed the tax on whiskey but the rebellion was stopped when president washington sent federal troops. The two party system, the Jeffersonian Democratic- Republicans supported state rights and a small government whereas the Hamilton Federalists supported a powerful federal government and supported the British. The French Revolution began in 1789 which led to Washington issuing the Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 which stated that the U.S would remain neutral in the fight between Britain and France. Jay’s Treaty was the last attempt to avoid war but it failed. Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795 with Spain and America gave them free navigation of Mississippi River and territory north of Florida. In Washington’s Farewell Address he warned against permanent alliances. XYZ affair in which France tried to get bribes and loans from the U.S.. France and U.S signed the Convention of 1800 which ended the XYZ affair. Alien Laws passed which raised resident requirements from 5 to 14 years. Kentucky and Virginia passed the resolutions which allowed the states to refuse to follow the laws created by the government.Chapter 12: 1812-1824In August of 1814, Washington D.C. was attacked and burned by British forces. Francis Scott Key who was on a British ship and watched as the British fleet attacked Fort McHenry inspired him to write the “Star Spangled Banner”. The Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24, 1814 by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay which was an armistice and both sides stopped fighting and restored conquered territory. The Hartford Convention met in 1814 to discuss their grievances on the war . The Hartford Conventions report demanded the abolition of slavery and the ? clause, president can only serve one term, etc. The Rush Bagot Agreement of 1817 between the U.S. and Britain, limited the naval weaponry on the Great Lakes. An effect of the War of 1812 was more nationalism. The tariff of 1816 issued by congress was to protect American companies due to Britain’s cheaper goods. The American system plan consisted of a strong banking system, protective tariff, and networks or roads and canals. During James Monroe presidency, it was known as the “Era of Good Feeling”. The panic of 1819 was the first financial panic and it was caused by over speculation in frontier lands. The Missouri compromise admitted Missouri as a slave state, Maine as a free state, and forbade slavery north of 36′ 30′. The compromise was to keep the balance between slaves and free states. McCulloch vs. Maryland declared the U.S bank constitutional and strengthened federal authority. Fletcher vs. Peck declared property rights against popular pressures. The Florida Purchase treaty of 1819, Spain ceded from Florida and its claims to Oregon in exchange for the U.S. claim on Texas. Monroe Doctrine of 1823 declared that Europe should not interfere with American affairs.Chapter 14: 1790-1860Due to the increased European immigration to America, the colonist became prejudice and hostile towards immigrant which led to a separation in the education system. American colonists created the Know-Nothing party because they opposed/despised the immigrants. Samuel Slater escaped Britain with memorized plans for textile machinery in which he created the spin cotton thread in 1791. In 1793, Eli Whitney built the first cotton gin which caused the increase for cotton and slavery. Eli Whitney also came up with the idea of interchangeable parts which became the core for mass-production. In 1846, Elias Howe invented the sewing machine which boosted northern industrialization. In 1848, the Laws of “free incorporation” were passed which allowed businessmen to create corporations without having to apply for charters. The telegraph was invented by Samuel F.B. Morse. In Commonwealth vs. Hunt, the supreme court declared the labor unions were not illegal conspiracies. Cult of Domesticity made the home a special place for women. In 1837, John Deere produced a steel plow to break through the tough soil in the west. McCormick Reaper, cut and gathered crops faster which allowed larger-scale farming. Robert Fulton created the first steamboat which played a huge role in the economic expansion of the West and South. The Erie Canal lowered shipping prices and decreased the passengers transportation time. The railroad was the most significant contribution to America’s economy expansion. The South grew cotton to export to New England and Britain, the West produced grain and livestock to feed factory workers, and the East made machines and textiles for the West and South. The Market Revolution transformed America’s economy from being agricultural based to more industrial. Chapter 16: 1793-1860Cotton was major American export because Britain imported more than half of cotton from the South which gave the South great influence in Britain. The South was an oligarchy because the government was run by the wealthy planter aristocracy which allowed the aristocrats to make decision in their favor. Since the South’s economy relied on cotton, it made the economy unstable. Freed blacks in the South were known as the 3rd race which is why they prohibited them to have certain job and on testifying against whites in court. Even though legal importation of slaves into America ended in 1808, many Southerners smuggled slaves because the prices for slaves were high. Blacks created their own religions with a mix of Christian and African elements such as Responsorial preaching. Nat Turner’s Rebellion, was a southern rebellion led by Nat turner against slavery which caused the deaths of slaves, stricter slave codes, and caused the South to defend slavery as a positive good. American Colonization Society, was formed to transport blacks back to Africa. Many abolitionist began to speak out against slavery due to the Second Great Awakening. American Slavery As It Is was written by Theodore Dwight Weld which argued against slavery. WIlliam Lloyd Garrison wrote The LIberator which spoke against slavery. In 1833 the American Anti-Slavery Society was founded to oppose slavery. Frederick Douglass was a black abolitionist who lectured for abolitionism and tried to end slavery through politics. The nullification crisis of 1832, states prohibiting all forms of emancipation. The Gag resolution prohibited all discussion about slavery in the House of Representatives. Free soilers were against the expansion of slavery in the western territories. Chapter 18: 1848-1854Popular Sovereignty was the idea that allowed the colonist in the territory to determine whether the territory would be a free or slave state. The California gold rush brought many settlers to California which caused California to apply for admission to the union as a free state but the southerners objected because it would break the balance between free and slave states. Harriet Tubman helped slaves escaped through the Underground Railroads which allowed the slaves to pass from the slaves states to Canada. The congressional debate of 1850 was made to discuss the admission of California to the Union and southerns threats of secession. The Compromise of 1850 was signed by President Fillmore which admitted California as a free state, left New Mexico and Utah up to popular sovereignty, and outlawed slave trade in the District of Columbia. The fugitive-slave law of 1850, slaves could not testify on their own behalf and they were denied a jury trial. The Mexican War victory simulated the idea of Manifest Destiny. The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 stated that America and Britain would not try to secure exclusive control over any isthmian waterway. The Ostend Manifesto stated that if Spain didn’t allow America purchase Cuba for 120 million then America would attack Cuba. Treaty of Wanghia of 1844, was an agreement between America and China which expanded trade between the two countries. Treaty of Kanagawa of 1854, opened trade between America and Japan. The Gadsden Purchase, America paid 10 million for Arizona and New Mexico in 1853. Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed the two territories to decide the issue of slavery with popular sovereignty. The Republican Party was against slavery and was made up of Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers, and Know-Nothings. Chapter 20: 1861-1865When Lincoln was elected as President the Southern colonies began seceding. The Battle of Fort sumter of 1861, the South attacked Fort Sumter which was the first battle of the Civil War and caused more southern colonies to succeed. Lincoln reason for the war was the preserve the Union but it later on became about slavery. The North had the advantage because it held ¾ of the nation’s wealth and railroad system and had a larger population whereas the South had the advantage due to fighting defensively on their own lands. The Five Civilized Tribes including Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles sided with the Confederacy whereas the Plains indians sides with the Union. The South counted on foreign aid to win the war due to its cotton but Britain had enough cotton, Britain wanted to abolish slavery and got wheat and corn from the North so Britain didn’t break the Union’s naval blockades. The Trent Affair was when a Union warship stopped a British ship and arrested two Confederate diplomats. The U.S. didn’t want to fight two wars so they returned the Confederates. In 1863 the Congress passed the federal draft law, if men were called in the draft they would have to pay 300 dollars to buy a replacements. To support the war, the North increased excise taxes, tariffs and created the first income tax. The Morrill Tariff was meant to increase revenue and protect northern manufacturers. The Nation’s Banking System Of 1863 was meant to increase the sale of government bond and establish a standard currency. The Homestead Act of 1859 gave free land to many colonists. The civil war allowed women more job opportunities that before were only for men. The North’s blockade negatively affected the South’s economy.