Introduction: producing wells, resulting in a large amount of

Introduction:

The
global demand of energy is undergoing 
significant growth with the increase in world population ,  technological advancement and industrial
revolution  . over last years renewable
energy have undergone significant development , and been consider as a
candidate to replace fossil fuel energy , 
 Even though there has been more
focus on renewable energy over the last years, yet  oil is still the main source of energy worldwide
 according to the international energy
agency  IEA . Thus,  therefore there is a need to discover or
recover more hydrocarbon to meet the world  energy demand. the application of different EOR method   recover
more oil from reservoirs by various mechanisms such as viscosity and  IFT reduction, wettability alteration,
enhancement of mobility ratio and sweep efficiency  ,  EOR
application involve the injection of material and substances  that change of physical and chemical  properties  of hydrocarbon and  provide gravity drainage. However, throughout
the years the traditional EOR processes have 
 faced  some  challenges and limitation. For example, gas  methods, the injected gas often quickly
penetrates through reservoirs from injection wells to producing wells,
resulting in a large amount of residual oil remaining uncovered in. the
application Chemical processes and agent  are often limited by the high cost ,  formation damages caused by injected chemical ,
and losses of chemicals eg,  adsorption
of surfactant into the reservoir  rock .
Therefore, less expensive, more efficient, and environmentally friendly EOR
methods are greatly needed. Nanoparticles (NPs) application offer novel
pathways to address the unsolved challenges. NPs are particles with size
ranging from 1 nm to 100 nm, and show some useful characteristics as EOR agents
when compared to the available injection fluids used in the traditional EOR
processes such as gas, water and chemicals. Nanoparticles as agent of oil
recovery efficiency for different types of crudecan address some of these
challenges, For example, one of the most important challenges to chemical processes
is pore plugging and injected chemicals trapped in porous media which result in
reducing formation permeability and increasing the injection cost . Commonly
used NPs, such as SiO2, TiO2 and Al2O3, are in the order of 1 nm–100 nm, which
is smaller compared to pore and throat sizes. Thus, they can easily flow
through porous media without damaging the formation  . In addition, due to ultra-small size of NPs,
they have the ability to penetrate some pores where traditional injection ?uids
are unable to. Thus, NPs can contact more swept zones, and increase the
macroscopic sweep ef?ciency. Another advantage of NPS is having a very high
surface to volume ratio. Due to their small particle size, NPs have a very high
surface to volume ratio. Low costs and environmental friendliness: One concern
of using chemicals on the ?eld scale is the injection cost. Because the price
of NPs is usually cheaper than chemicals, NPs can be widely applied for EOR at
oil?elds. Moreover, most of the NPs used are environmentally friendly materials
compared to chemical substances. For example, most of the silica NPs are
silicon dioxide, which is the main component of sandstone. In short, NPs are
very cost effective and environmentally friendly. Due to the aforementioned
characteristics of NPs, they provide many potential solutions to the existing
challenges faced by traditional EOR methods and an efficient oil recovery
solution for different types of crude most importantly. Another important aspect
of the usage of the nanoparticle is its ability to change the petrophyical
properties  of a rock  such as interfacial tension and wettabilty
whereby nanoparticle can be used as an agent to alter and improve rock wettabilty
by converting a rock into a water wet rock and subsequently enhance the oil
recovery, furthermore the ability of nanoparticle to reduce the interfacial
tension will improve the mobility ratio 
both surfactant and polymer have been used for wettability alteration
and IFT reduction .  In the recent year
the application of nanoparticle on microscopic scale have grab   great  interest due to the properties exhibit by the
nanoparticles therefore there is a need to conduct further experiment and
research to validate the effectiveness of nanoparticle as an EOR agent   . This project aim to analyze the interaction or the effect of rock
sample  grain size distribution  in the application of nanoparticle and to compare different grain
size of sandstone reservoir on nanoparticles application .   

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Project  Objective:

·        
To analyze grain size distribution in various geological environmental .

·        
To identify petrophysical properties of sandstone reservoirs.

·        
To compare different grain size of sandstone reservoir on nanoparticles
application .

·        
 To study  nanoparticles adsorption process  into a reservoir rock , which will ensure  better understanding  of nanoparticle  EOR process
.

·        
 To study  the mechanisms through which oil is enhanced
using  nanoparticle  .

·        
To study 
of rheological properties of nanoparticle in the application  of  EOR.
 

·        
To
study  the performance of the
nanoparticle  for improving the oil
recovery .

 

 

Expected
outcomes / Tasks :

·        
Conduct experiment on rock core sample to Study the performance  of nanoparticle in EOR application  through monitoring and analyzing  the effect of the nanoparticle   on petro physical propertiesof the rock sample
.

·        
Understand the relation between grain size distribution and the
depositional environment , and how grain size variation throughout a reservoir
or rock sample affect the rock behavior in term of fluid flow in  the rock 
.

·        
Understand concept/reason  involve
in the application of nano particle as EOR agent and mechanism involve in the
alteration of the petro physical properties of a rock during the injection of
the nanoparticle into the reservoir or rock sample .

·        
Understand the criteria , 
conditions and limitations  
involve in  the application of
nano particle as an EOR agent in term of rock and fluid properties .      

 

Conclusion:

Application of nanotechnology in the oil and gas
industry is  emerging field of study and
research . Recent research experiment  have been conducted and the result  shown that nanotechnology has the potential to
solve or manage several problems in the petroleum industry. One of the
speculated areas of application is in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). EOR is
especially important now  due to the huge
demand for energy  , therefore there is a
need to meet these demand. The ability of nanoparticles to alter  fluid and rock properties lead to the interest
and demand to conduct several experiment through  injection/application of nanoparticle  in  
hand sample  and reservoir scale  and studying its effect on oil recovery .