Intro to Public Administration
Ma’am Nazia Malik
Sikandar Ali Hashmi
A self opted disease for Pakistan?
the most dangerous place on earth, despite of being a nuclear armed country,
what caused a threat to the lives of its 200 million people? Terrorism, a
general category of fear, when erodes a country clearly put over a black mark
over everything: the economy, the image, the sustainability and the security of
lives of its innocent individuals. it does not kill one person, but indeed,
with each victim, a whole family destroys and psychologically affects a greater
proportion of people. This feeling of deprivation from a loved one and a
situation seen as an aftermath, is sufficient to shape the mindset of an
individual, with complete loss of trust over the institutions and writ of the
state responsible for maintaining peace and providing security to the citizens.
Almost all fundamental rights, right to live, never highlighted, is something
amongst the basic. Every human being deserves to live a life in full security
and protection, for himself, his family and other citizens. Factors
like social injustice, economic disparity, political instability, religious
intolerance and also external hands or international conspiracies are generally
highlighted as tools behind the aims of pursuing terrorism. Promoting terrorism
on the basis of a religion is widely used concept that not only contradicts
with the actual meaning that has been interpreted wrong, but results in arising
prejudices as categorizing the whole religion as promoting to this nightmare,
called terrorism, Islam, for so many years has been blamed to be the mother
religion of many terrorist activities carried out worldwide. Islam is a
religion that supports peace and harmony amongst the people of every citizen
and does not even encourage to kill an animal or an insect, how would it
support its follower to kill another human? “You shall not kill any person *
for GOD has made life sacred — except in the course of justice.” (Quran17:33).
The wrong interpretation of the concept of Jihad too was misguided and used to
promote for which, Islam clearly identifies as brutality and that resulted
Pakistan a life loss of around 63000
civilians and military personnel (1).
The base of terrorism is not a recent phenomenon
but emerged in Pakistan in 70’s and 80’s. Events that took in international
Arena had devastating effects for Pakistan. Domestic policy of Pakistan
triggled with Zia ul Haq, a military dictator hanging an elected prime minister
left Pakistan in a sense of alienation and isolation. Zia’s Islamization policy
was a result to retain the governing authority towards the citizens and the
later stand against the Red Army in USSR was following attempt for the same ambition.
Zia’s support for Islamic militias, promotion of religious based education and
Zakat law does not only strengthen the grip of right wing in Pakistan but also
gained the attention of Gulf states such as Saudi Arabia. Islamization was
instrumental in promoting the religious extremism in Pakistan to a greater
extent. At the same time, when Shia Musims in Pakistan were not at all
satisfied with Zia’s policies and his favoring of a specific sect and on the
same time, Ayat Ullah Khoumeni leading the Iranian revolution was also seen as
inspiration by Shia muslims of Pakistan. Sunni-Oriented policies in Pakistan
under the Umbrella of Sunni monarch in Saudi Arabia raised sectarian violence
in our country. Shia Muslims felt extremely saggregated and Pakistan for the
very first time faced deadliest sectarian conflicts from Kurram Agency in the
North and Karachi in the South for which the minority was supported by the
Roots of ethnic violence stem before the partition
but greatly got increased to the first time we got into a war, not ours, the
Afghan Jihad war after which, the dominant form of terrorism was established in
the 1990’s. Afghan Jihad war had a pivotal role in spreading militancy and
intolerance in Pakistan. Soviet communist regime altered the Pakistan character
of the society and an aftermath of soviet withdrawl plagued Pakistan into the
“Kalashinkov” culture leading to Talibanisation. This not only brought a new
variety of ideologies but hence, was an end to long pluralistic cultural values
we prided for. Following the cold war, America had to end the the proxy war in
Afghanistan not accepting supremacy of Russia over any place on the
planet,previously in korea in 1950 and
vietnam in 1955. This war against the Soviet was named the Jihad war and a
concept was made that the war was fought on the basis for preserving Islam.
America looked for the nearest place to conduct the strikes over USSR forces
and the Mujahideen both Intelligence agencies of America and Pakistan created
were taught in Pakistani Madrassas. Logistical support to the Intelligence,
Pakistan was hub to everything and domino theory, was a threat to Pakistan as
well. Pakistan opened the gate for 3 million refugees from Afghanistan which
was considered to be a fatal mistake in the later years. Most of the terrorist
activity was conducted in NWFP subjecting to the nearest border to Afghanistan
and who knew about the aftermath, the grip we provided to the Mujahideen, later
terrorists would become the worst nightmare in the years to follow.
Pakistan was a front foot strategic ally of the
united states, for which the US knew that money could easily influence the
nation politically juggled between dictatorship and democracy and its leaders.
The politics of International Arena turned upside down when America faced
attacks on the world trade center and the Pentagon, the 9/11. It’s
responsibility was accepted by Usama Bin Laden of Al-Qaedah, a Mujahideen force
created by CIA in the USSR invasion of Afghanistan. America was in turmoil, and
the anxiety throughout the citizens of America preesurized Bush to opt for an
aggressive strategy against our old friends, the Mujahideens. President George.
W Bush demanded Pakistan to either side with America or the terrorists,
Pakistan opted for United States, for sure. It was understood that the policy
shift by both the nations would however, affect Pakistan in the most adverse
manner. It clearly meant that the Mujahideens, we provided everything to,
needed to be removed and they were currently on our missions as well, in
Kashmir, and then the policy makers side by the US, providing every type of
support to the US and NATO including a route for the logistics to Afghanistan,
the forces entered to fight the Mujahideens. Mujahideens, the terrorists had
easy access to both the side of the borders, either Afghanistan or Pakistan.
The war on terror was the name and Pakistan had to side with the US or else,
nothing was an option in order to have diplomatic ties in the International
order. The worst phase of Pakistan in history in which the events in the
timeline below shows how this disease of terrorism, opted by us which was never
ours and we did not deserve, ruined a peace-keeping nation.
Terrorism in 2001-2015:
October, attack on a protestant church Bahawalpur, killing 16 along with 6
December, Pakistani interior ministers eldest brother was shot near soldier
bazaar in Karachi.2
On February 22nd,
American journalist Daniel Pearl was kidnapped and murdered in Karachi.3
March, grenade attack in a church located in diplomatic enclave in Islamabad
killing 5, including the wife and daughter of a diplomat.4
May, Bus bombing kills 11 Frenchmen and 3 Pakistani in Karachi.5
On 14th June, a car explosion in US
Consulate in Karachi, killing 12 people and wounding over 50 others.6
On 13th July, nine foreign tourists and three
Pakistani nationals were injured in the district of Mansehra.7
February, two policemen were shot dead outside the United States consulate in
On 4th July, bombing on Shia mosque in Quetta,
resulting in deaths of 47 with 150 injured.9
December, unsuccessful suicide attempt at President Gen. Pervaiz Musharraf.10
March. 42 killed in Shia proceedings in Quetta.11
May. 3 Chinese engineers killed in Gawader.12
August. C.M Baluchistan Escapes assassination.13
October. 4o killed and over 100 injured in car explosion in Multan.14
March. 35 killed when Sipah e Sahaba terrorist exploded in Jhal Magsi
May. 20 killed and 80 wounded in Shia proceeding in Islamabad.16
A total of 907
attacks of terrorism were recorded, resulting in death of 675.17
A total 3,448 were
recorded, out of 1,503 were killed.18
A total of 7,997
were recorded. 3,816 were killed.19
September, Islamabad Marriot Hotel bombings occurred killing 54 and injuries
A total of 12,632
were recorded: 3,816 were killed.20
One of the
notable attacks was on Sri Lankan Cricket team on their way to Lahore Qaddafi
Stadium. However, there were no casualties. Instead some of players of Sri
Lankan team were injured.
Total of 10,003,
were recorded, killing 2,985.21
Total of 6211
attacks were recorded.22
Total of 5379
Total of 5496
December, 6 gunmen from TTP ambushed Army Public School in Peshawar, killing,
141 children and 114 injuries.
Total of 3,682
In general, terrorism has cost Pakistan not only
with causalities but also severely affected its economy. According to the
Pak-US Business Council Report (2009), Our economy has suffered $35 billion of
loss. Pakistan’s Ministry of Finance added by stating a loss of Rs.2080 billion
in war against terrorism between 2004-5 to 2008-9 period. Pakistan’s GDP volume
is $304 billion which is 41% loss as compared to country’s economic size. This
means that Pakistan suffers losses of $7.7 billion per year.26
Loss can also be showed in the following graph:
just affected our economy but also our social life’s. Public places like parks
in areas like Quetta and Peshawar appear to be empty as many families fear the
safety of their own. On other side, tourism has also been tarnished; a country once
known for its breathtaking mountain ranges and scenery seems like a place where
people would avoid going because of fear of being kidnapped or killed.
Pakistan and its
people were nearly adjusted to the environment of fear and terror all around
and nothing was introduced, something substancial by the government or the
military. Mumbai Attack (26/11) was blamed to be done by Pakistan in which
Ajmal Qasab of Pakistan was blamed guilty. Sri Lankan International Cricket
team was attacked by terrorists in Lahore in 2009 on a tour in which no
casualties were seen but it killed the remaining image of Pakistan
internationally and till then to now, no well ranked country has ever visited
same until the morning of 16th December 2014, in which terrorists entered Army
Public School in PEshawar and killed nearly 140 students and faculty, including
the Principal. This was the time nation stood up and public opinion demanded
the terrorists to be dealt firmly. Operation Zarb-e-Azb, started in June of the previous year in Waziristan was
accelerated and no mercy then was showed to the terrorists and the insects,
silently killing our people and destroying our nation with blood. Minorities,
children, women, tourists, no category was safe from the brutality Pakistan was
in under and everybody was just hoping that when the time would come, that
would bring back the peace, Pakistan lost years ago.
Post APS attack
in Peshawar resulted an All Parties Conference in which all stake holders were
mutually present and resulted in bringing a jointly agreed National Action Plan
to combat terrorism.
? A 20 points declaration, agreed to
in the All Parties Conference was announced by the Prime Minister. These points
were unanimously agreed in a marathon of leaders of all the Political parties
after a session of 11 hours.
of death sentence of those convicted in cases of terrorism.
trial courts under the supervision of Army. The duration of these courts would
be two years.
outfits and armed gangs will not be allowed to operate in the country.
? NACTA, the anti-terrorism
institution will be strengthened.
action against the literature, newspapers and magazines promoting hatred,
decapitation, extremism, sectarianism and intolerance.
? All funding
sources of terrorists and terrorist outfits will be frozen.
? The defunct
outfits will not be allowed to operate under any other name.
? Establishing and deploying a
dedicated counter-terrorism force.
? End to
religious extremism and protection of minorities will be ensured.
and regulation of religious seminaries.
? Ban on glorification of terrorists
and terrorist organisations through print and electronic media.
? Administrative and development
reforms in FATA with immediate focus on repatriation of IDPs.
? Communication network of terrorists
will be dismantled completely.
? Concrete measures against promotion
of terrorism through internet and social media.
? No room will be left for the
extremism in any part of the country.
operation in Karachi will be taken to its logical end.
? Balochistan government to be fully
empowered for political reconciliation with complete ownership by all stakeholders.
against elements spreading sectarianism.
of a comprehensive policy to deal with the issue of Afghan refugees, beginning
with registration of all refugees.
? Reforms in criminal courts system to
strengthen the anti-terrorism institutions including provincial CIDs.
Miinistry of Information and
Boroadcasting presented few figures regarding the implementation of National Action Plan which are as follows:
Nearly 300 death row prisoners have been
hanged so far since the government lifted a six-year moratorium on death
penalty on December 17, 2014.
Security forces have carried out 54,376
combing operations so far under NAP and as results of these 60,420 arrests were
Similarly, 3,019 intelligence based
operations were carried out and 1,388 intelligence reports were shared with
The law enforcement agencies (LEAs) have
sealed 102 Islamic seminaries for fanning extremism. Moreover, it has also
frozen Rs1 billion in funds of proscribed militant groups.
The government has closed down 87
madrassas in Sindh and 13 in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Two seminaries have been
sealed in Punjab where a number of students were found in contact with banned
groups. The LEAs have also identified 190 seminaries that receive funds from
As part of the strategy to choke terror
financing, the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) has frozen Rs1 billion in 126
accounts linked to proscribed organisations.
Further, the LEAs have recovered Rs251.2
million in cash which was being traded through Hawala and Hundi.
The government also recovered Rs19.77
million from suspects involved in the 2004 ‘Chowk Yadgar Operation’ in
Over 1,500 books and other hate material
had been confiscated and 71 such shops sealed.
Under the NAP, 97.9 million SIMs have
been biometrically verified and 5.1 million SIMs have been blocked. The process
has been completed in just three months.
The government had also cracked down
against the misuse of loudspeakers. As many as 7,000 cases have been filed and
6,855 alleged hate-preachers arrested. Of them, 1,482 have been convicted of
hatemongering on loudspeakers.
The Rangers has
arrested over 58,000 criminals. Of them, 9,570 were absconders while 630 were
proclaimed offenders. Others apprehended during the operation included 1,731
murderers, 713 terrorists, 517 extortionists and 118 kidnappers. Security
forces also recovered 15,612 illegal weapons during the operation.
Pakistan has always been a peace keeping nation and the disease we havegone to
almost death beacause, was something which wasn’t ours and we opted for it
ourselves. Our policies throughout have resulted in giving a rise to the
elements provoking terrorism; sectarianism in Zia’s rule, ethnic violence in
Soviet war, getting in war on terror in Musharraf’s regime was all that
contributed to terrorism. The national security policies are not only the way
to exterminate the seeds of the terrorism from the ‘status quo’, but a focus to
be made on individual level to encourage people not to be a part of
organizations pursuing such agendas. Poverty and unemployment has resulted our
youth to get into the oppurtunities for generating income wether it involves
holding a tool, or a weapon. No body wishes to die hungry, a hungry man is an
angry man and everyone wishes that basic necessities of himself and his family
are fulfilled including food, clothing and shelter. Is the state deprives
someone from the facilities and organizations provide, a high probability of
the person getting inclined towards the terrorism promoting activities
subjecting to the human nature.
Injustice and illeteracy has been an important element in promoting
terrorism. When justice would not be provided by the institutions, people would
opt for holding the arms and getting justice to themselves, not trusting the
institutions and the law enforcement agencies. Education, on the other hand,
shapes an individual’s mind how to become a contributing member of the society
and proving lucrative to the nation as a whole. Lack of education facilities
has resulted a larger proportion of population to get deprived of the contributing
members to the nation and rather having low wages. They could hiwever earn a
large sum in conducting various terrorist activities not realizing the fact how
it affects another person nagatively, personal benefits are kept in front and
lack of inclinement towards education proves brain washing of the minds and
bring devastating affects to whole generation.
All citizens of
Pakistan must propagate moderate vibrant culture of Pakistan to promote good
will of world community and shun misconstrued beliefs. Attacks on security
forces personnel are executed at the sponsorship of hostile intelligence
agencies. Such anti state elements must be singled out and brought to lime
light to defeat evil agendas of our enemies. Pakistan has sacrificed the most
in the ongoing war on terror; criticizing Pakistan’s efforts at
national/international forum will be counter-productive to the overall
objectives of war on terror. Pakistan’s sufferings would now ened and hopefully
we would see a brighter furture ahead which would not only be successful in
running the economic cycle again, but would secure each and everyone’s life.
Hope a day comes in Pakistan, the brighter sun would eliminate all the micro
factors, that could even have a single negative effect on our nation and lives
of the citizens are secured substituting fear with love and harmony.
My cites. Yeh daal dein heesham apne tareeke se.
Sara aik tarah kar dein. Citings aik tarah. Plagiarism check kar kay. Sab dekh
k bhej dein.
1 “‘Trained terrorists’ behind Pakistan church
28 October 2001.
2 “Pak interior minister’s brother shot dead” The Times of India, 22 December 2001
3 “Khalid Sheikh Muhammad: I beheaded Daniel
Pearl” CNN, 15 March 2007
4 “Hunt for Pakistan church bombers” CNN, 18 March 2002
5 Suspect arrested in attack that killed 11 Frenchmen USA Today
6 Pakistan searches for blast leads BBC News
7 “Tourists injured in Pakistan blast” BBC News, 13 July 2002
Reeves. “Police officers killed in gun attack outside US
consulate in Karachi” The Independent, 1 March 2003.
9 “47 killed in Quetta mosque attack” Daily Times, 5 July 2003
10 Near miss for Musharraf convoy BBC News
11 Carnage in Pakistan Shia attack BBC News
12 “Pakistan car bomb kills Chinese” BBC News, 3 May 2004
13 “Baluchistan CM escapes bid on life” The Tribune India, 2 August 2004
14 Blast at SSP rally kills 40 in Multan Daily Times
15 “35 killed in Balochistan shrine blast”, Daily Times, 20 March 2005
16 “20 killed in Bari Imam bombing”, Daily Times, 28 March 2005
17 PIPS, 2012
18 PIPS, 2012
19 PIPS, 2012
20 PIPS, 2012