system or cardiovascular system have heart, blood and blood vessels. Heart is
mainly responsible for pumping the blood to different organs. The oxygenated
blood is supplied to different tissues and impure blood is send to lungs.
Heart has four
chambers that is two atria and lower two ventricles. The right side of the
heart consist impure blood and left side consist of pure blood.
different types of disorders associated with heart. The following are the
terminology related to heart diseases.
It is the inflammation to the cardiac tissue or cardiac muscle. In this heart
is made up of three layers that is endocardium, myocardium and epicardium and inflammation
to each layer is called endocarditis, myocarditis and epicarditis respectively.
is the disease associated nervous system. It is characterized by the abnormal,
involuntary, unnecessary movements of the body muscle in different positions
like abnormal face movements that affect speech, laughing and crying in
appropriately. The abnormal movements also observed in upper and lower limbs.
Hemodynamic: This term indicate the movement or
motion or circulation or flow of blood in the body. Here heam indicate blood
and dynamic indicate flow or motion.
means the decrease in temperature. Hypo indicates decrease or reduces and
thermo indicate heat or temperature.
Jones criteria: It
is the test for diagnosis of rheumatic fever. In this test, two criteria are
considered that is major (example is carditis) and minor criteria (examples are
Fever, arthralgia). Those have rheumatic fever must have two major criteria or
two minor criteria and one major criteria plus should have streptococcal
Polyarthritis: It is the condition associated
with joints. It is the inflammation to many joints like wrist, ankle knee
joints. It is characterized by inflammation with pain and swelling at joints
and facing difficulty in joint movements.
It is the blood disorder characterized by
increased level of red blood cells that is more than normal value. Red blood
cells are mainly responsible for carrying gases.
pressure: It is the pressure difference between systolic and
diastole periods. It is mainly responsible for knowing the function of heart.
The widening of pulse pressure increases the risk of congestive heart failure,
diseases of atherosclerosis and
increases the chance of death.
Shunt: It is the tube like device which is used
to move fluids or blood from one area (vessel) to another area (vessel).
is the reduction in diameter or constriction of blood vessels or passages.
Examples are aortic stenosis, pulmonary artery stenosis and spinal stenosis.
Stroke volume: The
volume blood ejected into the aorta during each contraction of left ventricle
of the heart is called Stroke Volume
Tachycardia: An increase in heart rate is termed as
tachycardia. It condition is due to cardiac disorder like congestive heart
sudden development of hypercyanotic episodes is called “tet” spells. It is
characterized by the children distress in respiration, lack of energy change in
color of skin etc,. This condition is mainly due to sudden drop in blood and
operative procedure in which the chest cavity is opened and allows the surgery
to heart lungs is called Thoracotomy