A across all nations. There are numerous mining industries

A megadiverse
country known as the Philippines is manifested to carry a large scale upon its biodiversity
or variability of life existing on earth, and that comprises a variety of species,
ecosystems and genetic resources. Groups of islands forming the Philippine
archipelago are presumed to bear vast land forms and animal endemism. According
to Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priorities (2002), beyond 52,177
species are identified in which more than a half of the hosted species exist
from anonymous areas of the locality. Concurrently, due to the alarming rate of
devastation among the significant resources, the Philippines is likewise deemed
as a “biodiversity hotspot.” Mainly, the devastation of the Philippine
Biodiversity is brought about by overexploitation or overharvesting, deforestation,
land degradation, climate change, and pollution participatively caused by human
activities. In another research, study shows how mining takes part in the
gradual loss of the biodiversity. Mining has become an occupation in the
Philippines and across all nations. There are numerous mining industries which
currently emerge. Unknowingly to the humanity, mining leads to adverse effects
on the biodiversity that Filipinos used to nurture and treasure. Mining is classified
into two major categories known as the small scale mining and large scale
mining. Upon the research, the emergence of deforestation is mainly caused by a
large scale mining that leads to extreme degradation of biodiversity
particularly the terrestrial organisms (Butler, 2017).

            Large scale mining is often a type
of mining controlled by a company consisting a large quantity of employees. Primarily,
the process requires deforestation in order to execute the company’s desire of
extracting valuable minerals nor metals from the earth (Algee, 2013). This then
becomes an issue as deforestation is one way of destructing the biodiversity
specifically the terrestrial organisms who depend on the trees as their habitat
and source of food. According to the National Geographic Society (2017), 80% of
the Earth’s terrestrial organisms live in forests, and many of them wouldn’t
survive without having their respective homes or habitats. The repercussions of
deforestation do not merely settle on the terrestrial organisms being homeless
but leads to more consequences. Deforestation, as caused by large scale mining,
drives climate change. This occurs when the extracted fossil fuels from the
ground are utilized in generating mining machineries. As fossil fuels are being
burnt, greenhouse gases are then released into the air contributing to the
occurrence of climate change (Vessel, 2016). In addition, most mines yield
methane as a waste product. Methane is a relatively potent greenhouse gas that
even a tiny amount of it can steadily aggravate climate change. These mines are
typically coal mines which make up an approximately 6% of the methane discharged
by means of the human’s activities (Vessel, 2016).

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As this
climate change continues, terrestrial organisms who inhabit a dwelling will
gradually fall into extinction. Subsequently, after the forest is completely
bare, the ground becomes or excavation. In a large scale mining, colossal
bulldozers and excavators are operated to extract the metals and minerals
within the soil. The extractions are amalgamated through the use of chemicals
including cyanide, mercury, or methylmercury. These chemicals traverse through
tailings to the rivers, streams or other bodies of water leaving them polluted
(Algee, 2013). This leads towards the extinction of aquatic organisms just as
how the terrestrial organisms succumb to mining.

            The impact of large scale mining on
terrestrial biodiversity or organisms is under many researches either global or
local researches. A global study in Brazil shows how mining drives extensive deforestation
in the Brazilian Amazon. The study quantifies mining-induced deforestation, and
investigates the aspect of mining operations which contribute. The conduct of
the study finds out how mining significantly increases Amazon forest loss which
takes up to 70 km exceeding mining lease bounndaries. This results a 11, 670
km2 of deforestation between 2005 and 2015. This extent delineates 9% of all
Amazon forest loss in the recent time and 12 times greater deforestation than emerged
with mining leases alone. The study has assessed the pathways that lead to such
impacts which comprise mining infrastructure establishmment, urban expansion
sustaining a developing workforce, and expansion of mineral commodity supply
chains. It is deduced how mining-induced deforestation leads to adverse effects
on terrestrial biodiversity such as the Amazon forest. In mitigating the
effects of mining and preserving tropical forest globally, environmental
assessments and licensing should be taken into account both on on- and off-
lease sources of deforestation (Sonter, Laura et al. 2017).

             Large
scale mining that leads to the extinction of terrestrial organisms is
applicable in many places along the Philippines. There has been numerous
projects being proposed by mining companies. The Tampakan Copper-Gold Mining Project
in Mindanao is evident of proposing large scale mining. According to Espiritu
(2015), the land is under the Philippine Mining Act of 1995 authored by Sen.
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. This permits a 100% 
proprietorship of the claimed mining land area and minerals by foreign
multinational mining corporations. Large scale mining is proposed by the company
which includes an open-pit mining. This is processed through clearing thousands
of hectares of rainforests and agricultural lands, deep excavations in
extracting the minerals,  pouring of
toxic metals or chemicals to make mineral ores, and the consumption of  millions of liters of water (Norgate, T. &
Rankin, W., 2000). The proposal has been a disturbance to the inhabitants of Tampakan,
Mindanao. Many of them oppose as it may cause a great disaster in the
biodiversity. Terrestrial organisms such as the flora and fauna are not just being
affected but as well as the community who depends on these resources (Espiritu,
2015).

              Hence,
it is evident how large scale mining affects the biodiversity to the extent
that it leads to the extinction of terrestrial organisms. Mining companies tend
to do mining for personal benefits such as wealth, without thinking of the
possible consequences that might happen aftermath. However, although mining
couldn’t be ceased as this has been commonly practiced in the Philippines and across
other places, there are always things that can lessen the impact of mining on
biodiversity by means of following the precautionary measures designated in the
process of mining. Mining can cause less harm on  the biodiversity if the humanity avoids
illegal and unregulated mining such as small scale mining, administers a
concrete report of dumped toxic wastes, backfills mine areas and cleans mine
wastes properly, and conforms to the mining legislations and regulations. Being
a responsible miner cannot only save the biodiversity from devastation but can
also save one’s life from the hazards that mining can cause.