1. the leader course in matters of international seas.

1.    
Introduction

 

The
specific report presents briefly, as there is no freedom in the word frame, the
importance of European ports, through analyzing a row of basic legislative concepts
and European instructions in the past, present and future. They are, also, reported
maritime strategies for future demands in maritime policy. Ports are not just
areas for the exploitation of vessels. At some European ports, where freight
and the rest of actions are undermined, other seaport areas can maximize profit
in less time. European ports play an important role in safety, in environmental
conscience and in the determination of terrorism and illegal immigration. Significant
roles in port authority play the port dues on vessels and land lease fees.  In the shipping industry, the European Commission
has major of importance in the living growth at its ports. The European ports
are provided with such a diversity, which can ensure the development of entire
regions. The EC, having in its hands more than 40% of worldwide fleet, it is
rightfully promoted as the leader course in matters of international seas.

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Past

Since the
day the EU signed the Treaty of Rome (1958), maritime policies changed the
regulation of mobility in between member states. No barriers were noted in the
circulation of people and cargoes. Even though, until 1970, the EU was not able
to achieve quite a growth in the transportation dealing, from 1986 and further
began a new generation of policies and regulations, which actually brought the
EU maritime transport into the spotlight. The basic ones are free of rivalry,
diving into no welcome billing and accessing the ocean trade, and consideration
of worldwide shipping about the maritime pollution. Furthermore, the policies
involved regulations for the transportation of cargoes within inland waterways,
as well as any requirement concerning marine ports and infrastructure. Noteworthy
to mention that the cargoes’ sewage or any remainder at the reception premises
of vessels is constituted as an additional policy itself. Remarkable to mention
that today the globalization has affected the marine transport and this comes
with the result of a percentage above 90% of external trade and another 43% of
internal trade travelling goods by sea. The annual cargo has been calculated to
more than a billion tones, being discharged and charged again at the EU ports. Next
in line come the maritime companies that actually belong to EU citizens, who
have conquered and now control 1/3 of international fleet, as well as 40% of EU
trade transports by vessels, defending its advantages. Last but not least, the whole
marine transport sector has in their employ more than 2, 5 million people in
the EU.

The EU
always aims to integrate the internal market and activate the competitiveness
in international economy of shipping. From 1992 and further, the EU suggested
freedom for marine transportation for both people and cargoes, among member
states only and, practically, it became official in 1999. Nevertheless, Greece
was out of contract. As part of EC policy, a review of total difficulties that
shipping dealt with, was made by the title ‘Towards a new maritime strategy’ in
March 1996. Matters like the maintenance of open markets, the upgrade of EC shipping
competitiveness and the confrontation of deficiency in state aid policy. Again
in March 1996, the EC announced, by ‘Shaping Europe’s maritime future’, the
meaning of shipping industry at shore for the occupation and financial
development of EU. In July 1995, the EC focused on the basic problems, such as
the poor infrastructure, the ponderous administrative executive processes and
the incompletion of long-lasting transport modes of transit. In June 1999, it
was notified that the short sea transportation was improved by 23%, in kilometers
tones. The strategy was prosperous between the years 1990 to 1997, as a way to
enhance coastal shipping within long distance trade.

Moving to the
21st century, the EU trying to establish the TEN-T trans-European
network, suggested 300 European ports. In January 2001, the Council agreed upon
the alteration and the finalization of decision, allowing the financing of ports,
within the following terms: international ports, community ports and local
ports, aiming to improve port services. There was a convention ready to be
signed in November 2003, with terms concerning that each port is forced to give
a financial report of systems, that any new support services coming are obliged
to remunerate the previous ones, that if there is a need for pilotage, it is
allowed to wisely use any safety regulations, and that clearance of self
service. In October 2004, a new and quite same suggestion for the port
services, but apart from the self service authorization, was signed, basically,
for the administration of consent, the choice for the responsible authority and
the navigation and fiscal rules. Member states and public companies have to
separate the accounts for each financial activity. Not to mention that the
Commission has the authority to check if there is a need of ‘over-compensation’
or funding trade actions.

In June
2006, the ‘Green Paper’ was signed, giving the option to the Marine Policy of
EU to link various marine categories, reserving the configuration and the
prospect of sea governance. The procedure took from 7th June 2006
and 30th June 2007 time. In October 2007, the communication on ports
came along with the Communication on an Integrated Maritime Policy. The EU
deals with upcoming provocations. For the maritime development, they are needed
new investments, the rise of cruise industry and the supply and demand sector
in terms of transportation. Rotterdam, Antwerp and Hamburg made a 30%
improvement in their port actions, till 2005.

 

Present

The European
ports connect the world through those guideline ports, ready to welcome each
cargo and passenger. As we know, 74% of general cargoes are transported through
the sea. Her ports, joined by regional and island areas, are linked to the
mainland Europe. 400 million passengers disembark and board of vessels annually.
1, 5 million employees are working only in ports. These were just simple
examples to understand that, nowadays, this shipping sector, called ports, are
of major importance, especially in between its 22 member states of the European
Union.

The trans-European
network of transportation, TEN-T, among guidelines for the development,
competitiveness and appropriate infrastructure, aims for the agility of
vessels. In 2011, the European Commission approved of a White Paper, or we
could describe it as a roadmap to build up a Single European Transport Area. 40
propositions for the upcoming decade were made, that can increase the movement
and competition. With this Paper there is an elimination of obstacles, fuel
consumption growth and occupation, as well as the decrease of imported oil,
leads to extinction of carbon cut by 60%, until 2050.

On 23th
May 2013, the proposal of EC for 329 ports is implemented by legislative and
not measures. Firstly, the Regulation (EU) 2017/352 of the European Parliament
and the Council of Ministers enact rules for the freedom of amenity of port
services. These rules, actually, intend to balance the competitiveness in the
financial sector and environmental security, focusing on productive private
investments. In case of any exploitation of users in these basic sectors, there
are actual potential of knowledgeable port employees for the confrontation and
avoidance for such matters. Moreover, the fresh rules, which were approved on
the 17th May, 2017, concerning the General Block Exemption
Regulation and port configuration, mention the ability of state members to fund
country’s ports, without the permission of the EU. Furthermore, the Social Dialogue
Committee that the EU offers, as a helping hand for the port employees, discuss
matters of health and security, as well as their education and anything the
port needs via guidelines for the future. So as to say, the Commission works
upon the design (Article 46) and funding of port substructure (Regulation
1315/2013) with the European network. Through ‘Connecting Europe facility’,
more than a billion Euros were sponsored in 2014 for inland waterways. In
addition, the EC, using the European Maritime Single Window can upgrade digital
flows, having the eManifest information, and the reduction of the executive load.
This proposition is under consideration for the moment, but it is expected to
be used in the summertime of 2018. Finally, in 2016, the EC with the ‘Port of
the Future’ and ‘Horizon 2020′ has made suggestions upon the increase of ports’
environment and their novelty. The European marine sector has made a great
development in its research course. Shipping has elaborated the R&D master plan
for any technological measures in transport and resource. This kind of plan is
used by the shipping industry for networks and platforms.

 

Future

Nowadays,
it is quite difficult to forecast the future, if the enterprises might have
profit in the investments made. However, the Shipping industry is clearer and
the European Commission has big plans to those involved with it. From larger
vessels to less fuel consumption and more will give fertile attributions, so as
to challenge us and build greater port facilities’ structure. As concerns the
financial development, it is expected that, within the years, and to be sure
enough, until 2030, the port cargo volumes are prescribed to be increased up to
50%. The fast growing containers’ traffic will help deal with new investors for
the substructure of new tasks, within the next 15 years, or else economy might
suffer from high external cost in ports. However, the port efficiency varies in
EU and the past years it has been shown that some ports cannot adapt the new in
general needs of ports, especially the logistic and economic ones, which in
fact other EU ports, followed by good efficiency, might be lead in decay, as
well. Problems the EU ports might face are the attribution gaps incite to
problematic traffic, longer land trips and bigger bottleneck.

New vessels
appear with different capacity each time for various distance transportation,
challenging ports with their need for higher power rendition with alternative
fuel supplies and the environmental services. Thus, the main target for ports
is to compromise and adjust with any change in the industry, by creating
gasification premises as one of the evolutions to be. The greatest suggestion
that needs to be on the table is the upgrade and the modernization of all EU
ports, none exception, and place them at their best levels. Remarkable to
report that, the EC considered the economy of EU to rise its financial revenues
up to 10 billion Euros till 2030, decreasing port costs by 7%. Additionally, the
EC comes with new regulations for the upcoming years for the deterrence price
embezzlement, assuring an imminent port environment to propel the best of operations
in the internal market. The local port communities make the suitable
conditions, adapted to clients for their benefit. As for the functionality of
the broader maritime transport network, the TEN-T created a net of 319 ports,
83 as the basic in TENT-T and 239 as the extensive ones. Therefore, this
regulation boosts short sea distance shipping by 4% to 8%, specifically in the Mediterranean,
and makes new entries for job positions.  There is this proposition on the table, the
rise of fees. Fees, strengthens the need for public funding, and so the port
authorities are loaded with more important autonomy and matters, like
substructure, technology and safety, will finally come at surface for solution.
The ports are in need of appropriate well trained workforce, so as to gain more
private investors, by modern organization and port activities. For this reason,
the EU will create 70.000 new working positions, until 2030. In addition to the
workforce, from the upcoming June 2018, a Social Dialogue Committee will be
built and the ports’ staff can assess the previous year’s advancement.

Investment in
the Liquefied Natural Gas is being forecasted. The Commission is planning to
adopt environmental exercises, based upon the substructure of electric power.
Financing in environmental port facilities, the EC will develop port fees,
which can be absorbed in the greatest productive way via local legislature.

The
European Parliament and Council have come up with 8 extra actions, which some
are done and other will be fulfilled in a few years, for the provocations the
ports might deal with in the future. Starting with the first action, according
to ‘Connecting Europe Facility’, there will be passageways and guidelines for
TEN-T and better structure of intermodal logistics. Also, the next one is the
financing of Structural and Cohesion Funds with TEN-T for the infrastructure of
port facilities. Furthermore, it will need the inspection of concession and
public port conventions. The fourth action comes with 4 decisions, in order to
improve the executive port authorities, and these are: the ‘Blue Belt’, ‘national
single windows’, ‘e-maritime’ and ‘e-Freight’. Furthermore, the EC made clear
on what is the meaning of reinforcement in the substructure funding, at the end
of 2013. Moreover, the 2013 was of major importance for the EU, as the social
partners agreed to an open work program. The seventh action is about health and
security, great aspects for the qualifications of EU ports. And for the end we
left the environmental fees of port infrastructure, placed in 2015.

With the
White Paper signed, in 2011, the goals made by 2050 are less fueled cars, 40%
less carbon cut used in shipping, 50% down of transferring people and cargo in
medium distances and, last but not least, again 60% reduction of fuel
emissions.  Due to external factors, for
example air pollution, the Commission should benefit from this and debit it as
the extra cost. The new regulation ‘Eurovignette directive’ pursues of higher
charge for vehicles and heavy goods. The Commission system will establish the additional
fee for heavy goods for the good of ports’ infrastructure. What is better than
new vessels, challenging the maritime industry to create new strategic plan. Bigger
and economic vessels are coming to the surface, with larger capacity. Some
private investors have already ordered measurements more than the 10.000 TEU,
which was the least expected. Larger ships are more eufficient and flexible,
travelling through the Europe and Far East waters. To sum up, new infrastructure
in port facilities, technological means included, generate a more competitive
shipping world.

 

Conclusion

In conclusion,
the substantial historical retrospection in the European Union ports are
reported within facts and conventions signed, that influence the present and
future of maritime industry globally. The regulation created, does not
necessarily affect only the European and, to be more specific, the Mediterranean
coast, but the worldwide market as well. The overall conclusion is that the EU
policy has created a prosperous port system with continuum growth. Free of competitiveness,
the EU managed great accomplishments in financial tasks of port services under
national rules. The European transport system builds in action all possible proposals
in diverse sections and one of them is the roadmap that will be evaluated in
the future. Legislative regulations and perspectives for the following decades
will be assessed. Thus, the main goals for 2030 to be accomplished and, if not,
at least occurred to their full extend, the EC will focus on the rise of energy
in its full competitiveness for the transportation and delivery of goods and
the carbon cut by 60%, that is to say more than it has been calculated until
2030.