Executing standardized process is crucial for
companies, as it is easier for employees to follow a certain guidance on performing
their jobs. Process standardization is considered to be able to minimize
uncertainty and variability in business processes. Uncertainty and variability
can be caused by the differences in people on doing their tasks since they have
different skills and experiences. To reduce this varieties, the right process
documentation is needed (Ungan, 2006).
Process documentation can be used by team
members as the main reference on how to do their jobs. It is also used as the
media to transfer knowledge. One of the knowledge that is crucial to be shared
among team members is procedural knowledge. Procedural knowledge has to be acquired
in order for someone to know how to do tasks (Rodríguez-Elias, Martínez-García, Vizcaíno, Favela, & Piattini,
Procedural knowledge transfer, in order to
make sure that all team members have the same standard of knowledge, in an
organization is important. Think of a newly recruited employee in a team or
when a specific task is transferred from one employee to another. He certainly
needs to refer to a particular form of process guidance to learn about the
process flow and how to do the job.
The example of the forms of process documentation
to transfer procedural knowledge that this study will prioritize on are
checklist and process model. Many literatures have discussed about checklist
and process model separately. However, there is no research that compared the
usage of those process documentations and analyze what is the right process
documentation to use based on particular circumstances. Therefore, this study
will focus on this gap. The result, which will be summarized in a metrics, is
expected will be beneficial for procedural knowledge transfer within organizational
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Procedural Knowledge and Knowledge Management
mentioned before, procedural knowledge transfer between team members is
important. Procedural knowledge is defined as series of actions for problem
solving, or in this subject is to know “how” to do task (Rittle-Johnson & Alibali, 1999; Rodríguez-Elias, Martínez-García, Vizcaíno, Favela, & Piattini, 2005).
However, people who have procedural knowledge may find it hard to
express or say it and they gained it through experience (Ertl, 2009).
Therefore, it is crucial for organization to document and preserve this type of
knowledge so it can be shared to other team members.
Gaining procedural knowledge sometimes needs more than one attempt (Sabri,
Haron, Jamil, & Ibrahim, 2014). Previous study shows
that acquiring conceptual knowledge (knowing “what” instead of “how”) before
learning about procedural knowledge may have beneficial effect. In the case of
this research, if the newly recruited team member gained conceptual knowledge
it may be helpful for him during the acquirement of procedural knowledge.
However, this is not one-way relationship. Both procedural and conceptual
knowledge can be learned and influence each other (Rittle-Johnson &
knowledge has to be managed properly and effectively to avoid any loss (Sabri, Haron, Jamil, & Ibrahim, 2014). In general,
knowledge management involves four processes, which are knowledge creation,
knowledge organization, knowledge transfer, and knowledge application (Becerra-Fernandez, Gonzales, & Sabherwal, 2004). This study will only
focus on the first stage, which is knowledge creation: capturing and
documenting the knowledge effectively by knowing which process documentation to
use. Hence, the other stages will not be discussed.
checklist can be viewed simply as a simple reminder on what things to do or how
to do it. Checklist could provide substantial help and guidance to a user which
can assist on reducing errors. The form of checklist could vary depends on, but
not limited to, purpose of use and domains. Generally, a checklist is arranged
in a systematic manner consisting a list of action items, allowing the user to ensure
that all items are considered or completed (Hales & Pronovost, 2006) (Gawande, 2010).
checklists are used in multiple domains. For instance, World Health
Organization (WHO) introduced Surgical Safety Checklist into operating rooms
which led to reduce mortality rates, of the hospitals who started applying it,
into half (Haynes & al., 2009). In aviation
industry, electronic checklist is integrated with Boeing 777 aircraft (Myers, 2016). Checklist became
very important as performing a checklist from memory is considered a violation (Helmreich, 2000). These studies show
that checklist is an adequate source and media to transfer knowledge from the
experts to the novices or even just as a reminder. Checklist has proven its way
that it can provide a great deal of positive effects as the result of its
2.3. Process Model
there are many types of process model, the aims of its usage are typically the similar.
Process models are used throughout an organization as documentations and to
preserve its business process features and characteristics, including the
activities and their relationships. Besides its important purpose as
documentations, process models are also utilized as communication facilitator
between stakeholders involved in an end-to-end process and help the
stakeholders to understand the process (Dumas, La-Rosa, Mendling, & Reijers, 2013) (Kalpic & Bernus, 2006).
applications of process models in real-life are intended to be analyzed in
detail, for example in order to measure and improve process performance (Dumas, La-Rosa, Mendling, & Reijers, 2013). A study conducted
by (Schiele, Laux, & Connolly, 2014) shows that process
modeling is also capable to serve as the media for knowledge transfer. (Schiele, Laux, & Connolly, 2014) are aware the
importance of business processes model in documenting procedures and therefore
need to be transferred and shared among process stakeholders.
many types of process models used in real-life. The examples are Unified
Modelling Language (UML), Event-driven Process Chain (EPC), IDEF3, Business
Process Model & Notation (BPMN). However, as stated by (Dumas, La-Rosa, Mendling, & Reijers, 2013), it would be “mind-boggling”
to try to learn, let alone analyze, all these models at once. Therefore, in
this study, we will focus on Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) as a
widely used standard for process modeling and it was released as a process
modeling standard by Object Management Group (OMG) (Dumas, La-Rosa, Mendling, & Reijers, 2013).
3. PROBLEM STATEMENT
3.1. Research Gap
From the literature review, we can tell that
both checklist and process model are capable of documenting knowledge and
therefore are adequate as a media to transfer knowledge. But however, there is
still gap that has not been covered by previous studies. The research gap that
this study is trying to fill is that there is no guidance that compared the
usage of checklist and process model and analyze what is the right process
documentation to use based on particular circumstances.
3.2. Research Goal
To map the answer of what (checklist or process model) and when (under what
circumstances, i.e. based on number of task, number of decision making (if
condition), complexity) in one metric table.
3.3. Research Question
Is it possible to
create a metric of what form of process guidance to use and under which
particular circumstances for transferring procedural knowledge?
o What are different forms of process guidance?
(i.e. checklist and process model)
o What are variables of process circumstances?
(i.e. number of tasks, number of decision making (if condition),
o How forms of process guidance connected to each of the process
(To show the connection between process guidance forms and
process variables. i.e. if the complexity and the number of tasks are high,
then the right media to use is process model)
o Which domains that use all of the listed forms of process
guidance for transferring procedural knowledge?
(this question will answer which domain and what scope that this
research will focus on, i.e. healthcare, financial industry, IT, education. This
question is necessary because we have to make sure that one domain are using
all of the listed forms. Those listed forms will be compared based on process
variables defined on previous research question.)
4.1. Research Methodology
Inspired by the research (Reijers, Leopold, & Recker, 2017), this research will conduct qualitative systematic review to
conceptualize and develop the metric. Previous researches regarding the
development and usage of checklist and process model are gathered into a long
list. Using inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, the long list is sorted,
resulting in a short list. Finally, open coding will be conducted to group and
analyze variables of process circumstances and to create a metric based on
previous studies found on the short list.
4.2. Model Evaluation
and process models will be gathered offline. It has to be ensured that the checklists
and process models found are not available online to avoid any bias. The
complete metric table means that each of the checklists or process models will
fit in one of the available dimension in the metric table. However, if there is
checklist/process model that doesn’t fit in the metric table, then the metric
table is not complete. This evaluation model is inspired by the research
conducted by (Aydin, 2017).
1st and 2nd
week: Thesis design presentation on the beginning of February, continued by
revision (if any).
3rd and 4th
week: Checklist and process models acquisition.
Checklists and process
models analysis, metric table creation
April & May
Checklists and process
models acquisition for evaluation and evaluation phase.
Master project presentation
5.2. Risk Analysis
one phase in this research that depends on external factors which is checklists
and process models acquisition for evaluation. It poses two threats to this research.
The first one is that it will take long time to obtain checklists and process
models from company, i.e. due to availability, company not willing to provide
and bureaucracy. The second threat is that this research will not have
sufficient time to be completed due to the first threat. To avoid these
conditions, the checklists and process models that will be used for evaluation
will be gathered as soon as this thesis proposal is approved, but will only be
analyzed when the evaluation phase has come.