1. Explain the main roles and activities of a manager. Identify the relevant roles and the activities utilised by a manger in the case study.Planning as to be most important element in managers is management activity that is used to set goals, where to put energy and strengthen operations, and resources to ensure that employees are working to the A good plan of action that is flexible, continuous, relevant and accurate, as it unifies the business by focusing on the nature, priorities and condition of the business.Organising is about the responsibility and authority as much communication such as making sure all employees know their duties clearly making sure maintain of discipline mangers must train and recruit the right people for the job and always secure a skilled and educated workforce.Coordination including define the timing and sequencing of activities so that they engage properly, allocating the appropriate size of resources, times and import, and adapting means to ends.Controlling means checking that everything occurs according to the plan approved the principles created and the instructions issued and taking suitable corrective act.Commanding more mostly to the protection of authority with rather more circulated decision makingIn cases study Suzy’s as the manager of the company she appointed Leon as head of chocolate development where they would meet and plan if any potential development can be made in the chocolate and hafiz as factory manager hafiz will meet Suzy and discuss about production programme which hafiz has already organise team and where he meets with team leaders and discuss and assign tasks and discuss any potential problem. And commanding all employees to undertake a job development reviews every four months and being advised on monthly basis how they were performing. Coordinating the management team boosted a positive culture by highlighting the individual as part of the team and rewarding employees to guarantee all orders were completed and delivered on time. Controlling the management team highlighted that quality and the continually success of the firm depended on everyone contributing as an individual or part of a team to achieve targets and the important of everyone working to the same goals.2. Identify two ways that organisations can measure managerial performance. State how each measure can be utilised to assess managerial performance.With the intention of measuring managerial performance successfully, a managerial review system should be used. This is a procedure used to review managerial performance by using pointers such as leadership, communication and change, to measure efficiency. The review system is designed to be cooperating and on continuing communication process between the management and will contain activities such as: performance management and assessments. Performance management is worried with ensuring the goals of the business are being steadily met. This does not simply concentrate on the management performance can also be used to evaluate individual staff as well as the entire business. Performance management helps the business as it confirms the effective delivery of the business goals.Business goals actuality met will then ultimately lead to greater advantages for example raised profits, motivated workforce, and improved control. Assessments are approaches used to assess staff performance and efficiency, these are also known as performance reviews. These Assessments are a chance to sit down with the staff on a one on one basis, evaluate their work, and give feedback and for the future strategy. Assessments will give a clear signal of how well the staffs are doing and what needed to be improved further.3. Identify and explain an appropriate behavioural theory of leadership and highlight its application in the case study.Douglas McGregor came up with X theory. The theory is about are two approaches to managing people. Theory x propose group of people who hate work and will dodge it if they can. Because of that employees must be pressured with punishment, so they can work to their goals. People assume that managers that intend to use theory x will have poor results. Theory y is about that employees want to be involved more in their job roles, are employees who are happy at their work and satisfied. Managers who use theory y will benefit the business because employees will be performing better as results will allow the employees to grow and develop.In the case study in CG chocolate Charlie believed people are motivated by reward and punishment and he reward using monetary bonuses and punish anyone who makes mistakes and threating them with dismissal or actually sacking them in some cases and in joy of chocolate hafiz empowered the employees and this allowed employees to build their knowledge and develop their skills this allowed the employees to maintain standards and encourage a positive culture of employees development in result the employees gotmotivated by through work not just money. Hafiz and Leon agreed to involve employees in new products staff where also encouraged to propose new name for new chocolate.4. Identify and explain a contingency or transformational theory of leadership and highlight its application in the case study.LEADERSHIP THEORIESVroom & Yetton is a contingency theory of leadership. It is an ideal which delivers guidelines to support management to choose suitable leadership styles. The ideal identifies five different leadership styles and the level of association with each one. These are: Autocratic 1 * Where the leader resolves the problem or deciding to use information he/she has at the time. Autocratic 2 * the leader gets the needed information from others and decides personally. Consultative 1 * it when the leader decides to share the problem with others on a one to one basis. And the leader will take the ideas on board and then decide. Consultative 2 * the leader shares the problem with others to know their idea and their thought in the situation and he/he will decide personally on the matter. Group based 2 * the leader shares the problem within a group then they discuss about it. They share ideas and thoughts and estimate choices to get an agreement. The leader will lead the meeting and ensure the topic remains on the issue until an equally agreement is had. The leader will make sure he/she doesn’t pressure the group decision in anyway. Studies looked at the likely effects of autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire leaders by asking when involving leadership might be useful. The normative ideals answer these questions; the ideal compares the value of autocratic, consultative and group-cantered decisions in different matters. Choosing the suitable style of leadership depends on the answers to the following questions:When is participation appropriate?What form should participation take?A contingency theory offers a framework for management to progress the most suitable organisational design and management style for a condition and I believe this is a good theory for Scotia to adapt as it allows the management to change to suit the issue and think outside the box.In the case study Suzy as the owner she appointed manager Leon and hafiz and will meets with manager Leon and discuss about any potential development and meet with hafiz talk about the weekly production programme and they both decide how to solve the issue and hafiz as a manger had a team and assign tasks and discuss any potential problems he never pressured his team the group decision in anyway he trusted in his team decision. Has the business grow Leon resented decision to being made by Suzy in the new creation of chocolate product because he felt like left out from thought process that lead to Suzy decision in this favour5. For the organisation in the case study, explain how theories of leadership can be used to improve the way in which a manger leads the staff.SCOTIA EXPANSION & THEORIES OF LEADERSHIPManaging change is an extremely important topic when it comes to applying changes in a business. As a manager, you must be able to understand how to be able to lead your employees during the changes whereas trying to dodge any conflict. It is important when applying changes, you need to help employees know why the change is required and that the business can help them through the change. Feels like the contingency theory of leadership, Vroom & Yetton, as mentioned above, is the good theory for the management at Scotia to adjust as it will provide different approaches on handling on the best at the decision-making procedures that come with changes. employees may oppose changes due to many issues, for example: lack of security, lack of communication and fear of the unknown. Management might feel like try different leadership styles for different issues might work better than making all the choices. The management will need to talk the offers with the employees. And ask about how their views and opinions before being able to decide concerning the business future. Currently the employees are happy in their workplace yet these factors involving to change could soon change this and therefore productivity might drop, absence might increase in general it might have a harmful impact on the business and that is something Scotia duty try to dodge at all prices.